Energy efficient servers – Blue prints for data center optimization from Gough/Steiner/Sanders is a new book on power tuning on servers that was recently published at Apress. I got my copy a few weeks ago and read it and it is great.
Disclaimer: I contributed a few pages to the book, but have no financial interest in its success.
As you probably already know power efficiency is very important for modern computing. It matters to mobile devices to extend battery time, it matters to desktops and servers to avoid exceeding the thermal/power capacity and lower energy costs.
Modern chips cannot run all their transistors at full speed at the same time due to the dark silicon problem. This results in the somewhat paradoxical situation that power management is needed, even if energy costs don’t matter, just to give the best performance (such as the highest Turbo frequencies)
Power management in modern systems is quite complex, with many different moving parts, hardware, operating systems, drivers, firmware, embedded micro-controllers working together to be as efficient as possible. I’m not aware of any good overview of all of this.
There is some lore around — for example you may have heard of race to idle, that is running as fast as possible to go idle again — but nothing really that puts it all into a larger context. BTW race-to-idle is not always a good idea, as the book explains.
The new book makes an attempt to explain all of this together for Intel servers (the basic concepts are similar on other systems and also on client systems).
It starts with a (short) introduction of the underlying physical principles and then moves on to the basic CPU and platform power management techniques, such as frequency scaling and idle state and thermal management. It has a discussion on modern memory subsystems and describes the trade offs between different DIMM configurations. It describes the power management differences between larger servers and micro servers. And there is a overview of thermal management and power supply, such as energy efficient power supplies and voltage regulators.
Then it moves on to an overview of the software involved in power management, including firmware, rack level power management software, and operating systems. Then there is an extensive chapter how to instrument and measure power management
Finally (and perhaps most valuable) the book lays out a systematic power tuning methodology, starting with measurements and then concrete steps to optimize existing workloads for the best power efficiency.
The book is written not as an academic text book, but intended for people who solve concrete problems on shipping systems. It is quite readable, explaining any complicated concepts. You can clearly tell the authors have deep knowledge on the topic. While the details are intended for Intel servers, I would expect the book to be useful even to people working on clients or also other architectures.
One possible issue with the book is that it may be too specific for today’s systems. We’ll see how well it ages to future systems. But right now, as it just came out, it it very up-to-date and a good guide. It has some descriptions of data center design (such as efficient cooling), but these parts are quite short and are clearly not the main focus.